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The Senate consists of 100 members, two from each state. It is currently made up of 51 Republicans and 49 Democrats.
With terms of six years, about a third of the Senate is up for election every two years. Thirty-five seats are in play in Tuesday’s election.
Of the 35 seats up for grabs, 26 are held by Democrats and nine by Republicans.
The Senate majority leader is Mr Mitch McConnell of Kentucky.
Likely Senate outcome: Republicans hold on to the Senate.
Thirty-six of the 50 US states elect governors this year, including about 10 considered toss-ups.
Republicans currently control 29 governorships to 21 for the Democrats.
Two races which are of particular interest are Georgia, where Democrat Stacey Abrams is seeking to become the first black woman to become governor of a US state, and Florida, where Democrat Andrew Gillum is locked in a bitter battle with Republican and Trump acolyte Ron DeSantis.
In addition to electing their lawmakers, Americans in several states will vote on ballot measures.
Among the notable initiatives:
– Five states are considering the legalisation of medical or recreational marijuana.
– Minimum wage increases are on the ballot in two states.
– Access to abortion and abortion funding is on the ballot in three states.
Besides stymieing the Trump agenda, a Democratic victory in the House could allow Democrats to launch multiple committee investigations of the Trump administration and possibly even impeachment proceedings.
Around 37 per cent of eligible voters took part in the 2014 midterm elections, down from 42 per cent in 2010.
More than 60 per cent of eligible voters took part in the 2016 vote, when the presidential race was on the ballot.