SCI-TECH: Ichthyology- MANILA- A rare golden bangus or milkfish


A rare golden bangus or milkfish was spotted in a fishpond in Barangay Carael, Dagupan City last July. It was already transferred to the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) on Friday, June 19.






ūüďł: Rommel Felomino¬†#BeAnINQUIRER



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ichthyology covers a diverse range of body forms and sizes.

Ichthyology is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish, including bony fish (Osteichthyes), cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes), and jawless fish (Agnatha). According to FishBase, 33,400 species of fish had been described as of October 2016, with approximately 250 new species described each year.[1][citation needed]



The word is derived from the Greek words¬†ŠľįŌáőłŌćŌā,¬†ikhthus, meaning “fish”; and¬†őĽőŅő≥őĮőĪ,¬†logos, meaning “to study”.[2][3]


Photo of square side of pottery showing fish with skewed checkered pattern on its skin. Zig-zag lines represent waves at the top and bottom.

Fish represent approximately 8% of all figurative depictions on Mimbres pottery.

The study of fish dates from the¬†Upper Paleolithic Revolution¬†(with the advent of “high culture”). The science of ichthyology was developed in several interconnecting epochs, each with various significant advancements.

The study of fish receives its origins from humans’ desire to feed, clothe, and equip themselves with useful implements. According to¬†Michael Barton, a prominent ichthyologist and professor at¬†Centre College, “the earliest ichthyologists were hunters and gatherers who had learned how to obtain the most useful fish, where to obtain them in abundance, and at what times they might be the most available”. Early cultures manifested these insights in abstract and identifiable artistic expressions.

1500 BC‚Äď40 AD

Informal, scientific descriptions of fish are represented within the Judeo-Christian tradition. The Old Testament laws of kashrut forbade the consumption of fish without scales or appendages.[citation needed]Theologians and ichthyologists believe that the apostle Peter and his contemporaries harvested the fish that are today sold in modern industry along the Sea of Galilee, presently known as Lake Kinneret. These fish include cyprinids of the generaBarbus and Mirogrex, cichlids of the genus Sarotherodon, and Mugil cephalus of the familyMugilidae.

335 BC‚Äď80 AD

Aristotle¬†incorporated ichthyology into formal scientific study. Between 333 and 322 BC, he provided the earliest¬†taxonomic¬†classification of fish, accurately describing 117 species of¬†Mediterranean¬†fish.[4]¬†Furthermore, Aristotle documented¬†anatomical¬†and behavioral differences between¬†fish¬†and¬†marine mammals. After his death, some of his pupils continued his ichthyological research.¬†Theophrastus, for example, composed a¬†treatise¬†on amphibious fish. The Romans, although less devoted to science, wrote extensively about fish.¬†Pliny the Elder, a notable Roman¬†naturalist, compiled the ichthyological works of indigenous¬†Greeks, including verifiable and ambiguous peculiarities such as the¬†sawfish¬†and¬†mermaid, respectively. Pliny’s documentation was the last significant contribution to ichthyology until the¬†European Renaissance.

European Renaissance

The writings of three 16th-century scholars,¬†Hippolito Salviani,¬†Pierre Belon, and¬†Guillaume Rondelet, signify the conception of modern ichthyology. The investigations of these individuals were based upon actual research in comparison to ancient recitations. This property popularized and emphasized these discoveries. Despite their prominence, Rondelet’s¬†De Piscibus Marinis¬†is regarded as the most influential, identifying 244 species of fish.

16th‚Äď17th century

The incremental alterations in navigation and shipbuilding throughout the Renaissance marked the commencement of a new epoch in ichthyology. The Renaissance culminated with the era of exploration and colonization, and upon the cosmopolitan interest in navigation came the specialization in naturalism. Georg Marcgrave of Saxony composed the Naturalis Brasilae in 1648. This document contained a description of 100 species of fish indigenous to the Brazilian coastline. In 1686, John Ray and Francis Willughby collaboratively published Historia Piscium, a scientific manuscript containing 420 species of fish, 178 of these newly discovered. The fish contained within this informative literature were arranged in a provisional system of classification.

Frontispiece from Ichthyologia, sive Opera Omnia de Piscibus by Peter Artedi

The classification used within the¬†Historia Piscium¬†was further developed by¬†Carl Linnaeus, the “father of modern taxonomy”. His¬†taxonomic¬†approach became the systematic approach to the study of organisms, including fish. Linnaeus was a professor at the¬†University of Uppsala¬†and an eminent¬†botanist; however, one of his colleagues,¬†Peter Artedi, earned the title “father of ichthyology” through his indispensable advancements. Artedi contributed to Linnaeus’s refinement of the principles of taxonomy. Furthermore, he recognized five additional¬†orders¬†of fish: Malacopterygii, Acanthopterygii, Branchiostegi, Chondropterygii, and¬†Plagiuri. Artedi developed standard methods for making counts and measurements of anatomical features that are modernly exploited. Another associate of Linnaeus,¬†Albertus Seba, was a prosperous¬†pharmacist¬†from¬†Amsterdam. Seba assembled a cabinet, or collection, of fish. He invited Artedi to use this assortment of fish; unfortunately, in 1735, Artedi fell into an Amsterdam canal and drowned at the age of 30.

Linnaeus posthumously published Artedi’s manuscripts as¬†Ichthyologia, sive Opera Omnia de Piscibus¬†(1738). His refinement of taxonomy culminated in the development of the¬†binomial nomenclature, which is in use by contemporary ichthyologists. Furthermore, he revised the orders introduced by Artedi, placing significance on¬†pelvic fins. Fish lacking this appendage were placed within the order Apodes; fish containing abdominal, thoracic, or jugular pelvic fins were termed Abdominales, Thoracici, and Jugulares, respectively. However, these alterations were not grounded within evolutionary theory. Therefore, over a century was needed for¬†Charles Darwin¬†to provide the intellectual foundation needed to perceive that the degree of similarity in taxonomic features was a consequence of¬†phylogenetic¬†relationships.

Modern era

Close to the dawn of the 19th century, Marcus Elieser Bloch of Berlin and Georges Cuvier of Paris made attempts to consolidate the knowledge of ichthyology. Cuvier summarized all of the available information in his monumental Histoire Naturelle des Poissons. This manuscript was published between 1828 and 1849 in a 22-volume series. This document describes 4,514 species of fish, 2,311 of these new to science. It remains one of the most ambitious treatises of the modern world. Scientific exploration of the Americas advanced knowledge of the remarkable diversity of fish. Charles Alexandre Lesueur was a student of Cuvier. He made a cabinet of fish dwelling within the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence River regions.

Adventurous individuals such as¬†John James Audubon¬†and¬†Constantine Samuel Rafinesque¬†figure in the faunal documentation of North America. They often traveled with one another. Rafinesque wrote¬†Ichthyologic Ohiensis¬†in 1820. In addition,¬†Louis Agassiz¬†of¬†Switzerland¬†established his reputation through the study of freshwater fish and the first comprehensive treatment of palaeoichthyology,¬†Poisson Fossil’s. In the 1840s, Agassiz moved to the United States, where he taught at¬†Harvard University¬†until his death in 1873.

Albert G√ľnther¬†published his¬†Catalogue of the Fish of the British Museum¬†between 1859 and 1870, describing over 6,800 species and mentioning another 1,700. Generally considered one of the most influential ichthyologists,¬†David Starr Jordan¬†wrote 650 articles and books on the subject and served as president of¬†Indiana University¬†and¬†Stanford University.

Modern publications

Publication Frequency Date of publication Publisher
Copeia Quarterly 27 December 1913 American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists
Journal of Applied Ichthyology Bi-monthly 1985 Blackwell Publishing
Ichthyological Bulletin Irregular January 1956 Rhodes University


Organizations Organizations
  • North American Native Fish Association
  • Panhellenic Society of Technologists Ichthyologists[5]
  • Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology
  • Society for Northwestern Vertebrate Biology
  • Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections
  • Southeastern Fish Council
  • Southwestern Association of Naturalists
  • The World Conservation Union



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